The Joint Strike fighter (JSF) is a program designed to develop a family of stealthy, next- generation replacement strike fighter aircraft for the USAF, USN, USMC and the UK Royal navy and Royal Air Force.
The Joint Advanced Strike Technology program ended its research phase in December 1994.
The JSF program entered its current phase, the Concept Demonstration Phase in November 1996, when two contractors, Boeing (X-32) and Lockheed Martin (X-35), were selected to build and fly Concept- Demonstration aircraft.
There were two aircraft, the X-32A CTOL concept demonstrator for the USAF and US Navy, and the X-32B STOVL concept demonstrator for the USMC and Royal Navy. Unlike the Lockheed Martin X-35, there were no airframe changes required to demonstrate US Navy aircraft carrier (CV/CTOL) approach capabilities – the X-32A performed both roles.
First flight of the Boeing X-32A was on September 18, 2000 a flight from Palmdale, CA to Edwards Air Force Base, CA.
The first air-air refueling with a McDonnell Douglas KC-10A Extender was on December 19, 2000.
With the X-32A were planned for the test program, 30 flights conventional take-off and landing and 30 flights of carrier capable take-off and landings.
The X-32B first flight March 29,2001, completed the first vertical landings following transition from conventional to vertical flight at the US Navy’s Patuxent River, MD, test facility at June 27, 2001. Since March 2001 it has flown 78 flights, 43,2 hours in the test program, that ended on July 8,2001.
The Governments Joint Strike Fighter decision on October 26, 2001, was a disappointment for Boeing, the winner of the competition is the Lockheed Martin X-35.
|Developing Nation:||United States of America.|
|Manufacturer/Designer:||Boeing Military Airplanes.|
|First Flight:||- X-32A September 18, 2000.
- X-32B March 29,2001.
|Wing Span:||- X-32A 10,97 m.
- X-32B 9,14 m.
|Wing Area:||54,81 m².|
|Length:||- X-32A 13,72 m.
- X-32B 13,33 m.
|Engine (s):||- X-32A: one Pratt & Whitney F-119-611
- X-32B: one Rolls Royce/Allison shaft-driven lift-fan
|Weight:||- Empty: X-32A/B 10.200 Kg.
X-32C 11.100 Kg.
- Internal fuel: X-32A/B 6.800 Kg.
X-32C 7.700 Kg.
- External weapons: 5.000 Kg.
X-32C 5.450 Kg.
|Max. Take off weight:||- X-32A/B 22.680 Kg.
- X-32C 27.200 Kg.
|Max. ceiling:||15.240 m.|
|Max. Speed:||mach 1.5.|
|Max. Range:||- X-32A 1.575 Km.
- X-32B 1.110 KM
- X-32C 1.390 Km.
|g limits:||9 +|
|Weapons:||- 20mm M61A2 rotary cannon.
- AIM-9 Sidewinder.
- AIM-120C AMRAAM.
- Joint Direct Attack Munitions.
The F-111 was developed according to a US Air Force requirement for a new fighter-bomber and the US Navy’s need for a new air Defence fighter with a single platform. The US navy cancelled the F-111B in 1968 due to overweight.
The F-111 was the first operational aircraft with features like swing wings, and afterburning turbofans, and it could cruise supersonically without using the afterburner in clean setup. It also had terrain following radar and a cockpit escape capsule.
At first some problems were experienced with the swing wing mechanism and the air inlets, but they were resolved eventually.
- F-111A first model.
- F-111E with revised air inlets.
- F-111D included digital avionics.
- F-111F fitted with more powerful engines and improved analog avionics
- FB-111 strategic nuclear bomber with longer wingspan and heavier undercarriage, in the early 1990′s the FB-111′s had their nuclear role removed, and were redesignated the F-111G (they went through a digital avionics upgrade)
F-111F Gulf War veteran (with upgraded digital avionics and pave tack laser designator) was retired in July 1996 While the EW EF-111 Raven jammer bowed was fazed out in 1998.
Australia operates 22 F-111C’s the C combined the engines and avionics of the F-111A with the FB-111B’s heavier undercarriage and longer span wings. Four were modified as RF-111C reconnaissance aircraft, with a similar equipment fit in the bomb-bay as in the F-14′s TARP pod. The F-111C’s carry the Pave Tack pod and the R/F-111C fleet underwent a comprehensive digital avionics upgrade program, completed in 1999. They were re-engined with 93.4 kN TF30-P109′s (from retired USAF F-111′s) in the late 1990′s Australia bought 15 ex USAF F-111G’s which were delivered from 1993. They will help to extend the RAAF F-111 fleet life to 2020.
- Crew: 2 (pilot and weapons system operator)
- Length: 22.4 m (73 ft 6 in)
- Spread: 19.2 m (63 ft)
- Swept: 9.75 m (32 ft)
- Height: 5.22 m (17.13 ft)
- Wing area:
- Spread: 61.07 sq m (657.4 sq ft)
- Swept: (48.77 sq m (525 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 21,400 kg (47,200 lb)
- Loaded weight: 37,600 kg (82,800 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 45,300 kg (100,000 lb)
- Powerplant: 2× Pratt & Whitney TF30-P-100 turbofans
- Dry thrust: 17,900 lbf (79.6 kN) each
- Thrust with afterburner: 25,100 lbf (112 kN) each
- Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0186
- Drag area: 0.87 sq m (9.36 sq ft)
- Aspect ratio: spread: 7.56, swept: 1.95
- Maximum speed: (2,655 km/h (Mach 2.5 1,650 mph)
- Combat radius: 2,140 km (1,330 mi 1,160 nmi)
- Ferry range: 6,760 km (4,200 mi 3,700 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 20,100 m (66,000 ft )
- Rate of climb: 131.5 m/s (25,890 ft/min)
- Wing loading:
- Spread: 615.2 kg/sq m (126.0 lb/sq ft)
- Swept: 771 kg/sq m (158 lb/sq ft)
- Thrust/weight: 0.61
- Lift-to-drag ratio: 15.8
- Guns: 1× M61 Vulcan 20 mm (0.787 in) gatling cannon (seldom fitted)
- Hardpoints: 9 in total (8× under-wing, 1× under-fuselage between engines)
- Armament capacity: 31,500 lb (14,300 kg) ordnance mounted externally on hardpoints and internally in fuselage weapons bay
- Free-fall general-purpose bombs
- Mk 82 (500 lb/227 kg)
- Mk 83 (1,000 lb/454 kg)
- Mk 84 (2,000 lb/907 kg)
- Mk 117 (750 lb/340 kg)
- Cluster bombs
- BLU-109 (2,000 lb/907 kg) hardened penetration bomb
- Paveway laser-guided bombs, including:
- GBU-10 (2,000 lb/907 kg)
- GBU-12 (500 lb/227 kg)
- GBU-28, specialized 4,800 lb (2,200 kg) penetration bomb
- BLU-107 Durandal runway-cratering bomb
- GBU-15 electro-optical bomb
- AGM-130 stand-off bomb
Developed by Lockheed as a single engine, high performance super sonic interceptor aircraft.
The ‘Starfighter’ served the US air force from 1958 until 1967, the Air National Guard phased out the last F-104 in 1975. Nasa stoped using the F-104 in 1994.
Several European air forces had the F-104 in service mainly the F-104G, they served well into the 1980′s. The final version of the ‘Starfighter’ the F-104S was developed by Lockheed for the Italian air force, designed to carry AIM-7 Sparrow missiles. The Italian’s were the last operators of the Starfighter, their last F-104S retired in 2004.
Clarence “Kelly” Johnson, chief engineer from Lockheed at ‘Skunk Works’ visited US pilots in Korea in 1951 and simply asked them what sort of aircraft they think was needed to obtain air superiorety in a coflict. The pilots wanted a simple small?aircraft with high performance, Kelly returned to the States and designed just that, The L-246. That first design essentially stayed identical to the Starfighters that were first delivered.
|Developing Nation:||United States|
|Chief engineer:||Clarence “Kelly” Johnson|
|Task:||Multi-role combat aircraft|
|First Flight:||- XF-104: February 7th 1954- F-104A: February 17th 1954 (the 104A had the new and much more powerful J79 engine)- F-104G: October 5th 1960- F-104S: 1966|
|Crew:||- 1- trainers: 2|
|Wing Span:||6,68 m (without tip-tanks or missiles)|
|Wing Area:||18,21 m²|
|Engine (s):||- F-104A: General Electric J79-3 enlarged turbojet with 6713 kg thrust- F-104G: General Electric J79-11A enlarged turbojet with 7167 kg thrust- F-104S:General Electric J79-19 enlarged turbojet with 8119 kg thrust|
|Weight:||- F104A: 5698 kg- F104G: 6387 kg- F104S: 6758 kg|
|Max.Take off weight:||- F104A: 8891 kg- F104G: 13054 kg- F104S: 14061 kg|
|Max. Speed:||(Clean)- High altitude: 2334 km/h- Low altitude: 1464 km/h|
|Max. Range:||- F-104A: 1770 km- F-104G: 3510 km- F-104S: 2920 km|
|Ejection Seat:||- Stanley C-1- Export Starfighters were retro-fitted with Martin Baker zero-zero ejection seats.|
|Radar:||- AN/ASG-14T ranging radar (initial USAF Starfighters)- Auronetics NASARR radar (Internarional fighter-bomber aircraft)- NASARR R21-G radar with moving-target indicator and continuous-wave illuminator for semi-active radar homing missiles. (Italian F-104S)|
|Weapons:||- All types: 20 mm M61A-1 Cannon, and wingtips Sidewinder missiles.- F-104C: can carry: 2x 454 Kg. Bombs- F-104G: can carry 1x 907 Kg. load under the fuselage, and two 454 Kg. bombs under its wings- F-104S: Carries 2x Sparrow or Aspide air to air missiles plus 2 or 4 Sidewinders|
The countries that use(d)
the F-104 in various types:
|Belgium Canada (CF-104) Denmark Germany Greece Italy Japan Jordan Netherlands Norway Pakistan Spain Taiwan (Republic of China) Turkey United States|
Production of the F-104:
|TF-104G (583C to F)||172||27||199|
|TF-104G (583G and H)||21||21|
|Total by manufacturer||741||48||340||444||350||50||210||207||188||2578|