The Dornier Do-28 Skyservant was developed into a number of progressively improved variants, from the original D, through the D1 and D2, to the 128-2, introduced in 1980. Each variant introduced a number of detail changes. Most Do-28 production was for military customers, notably Germany, although a small number were delivered to commercial operators.
The Dornier Do-28 was basically a two-engine version of the earlier Do-27 STOL aircraft series, which itself was based on the Do-25. The single Do-28 (or Do 28A) prototype was powered by two 132 kW/180 hp engines, and flew for the first time on April 29, 1959, still using a Do-27 wing.
The Do-28D was similar in layout to the Do-28A and Do-28B, but was considerably larger and heavier.
The main difference to the earlier Do-28D-1 was its higher gross weight, refined flaps, ailerons, stabilators and leading edge slats. Additionally, equipment that was previously only optional became standard on this model.
One Bundeswehr Do-28D-2 was modified with turboprops as Do-28D-2T, and flew for the first time in this configuration in March 1980, but no other Bundeswehr aircraft were re-engined. Two Marineflieger (Navy) Do-28D-2 were modified as Do-28D-2/OU (Oil Unit) for Oil Spill Search and Environmental Pollution Control. A Maritime Patrol version with a large radom under the nose/forward fuselage, was never sold and only a prototype was built.
Another Do-128-2 was used as testbed for the Dornier TNT (Tragfluegel Neuer Technologie = New Technology Wing) supercritical wing, and was equipped with two Garrett AiResearch TPE 331-5 turboprops (533 kW/with 715 shp). This layout was later also used on the Do-228, which was originally designated Do 28E-1 (15-seat Do 228-100) and Do 28E-2 (19-seat Do 228-200).
The main task of Air America’s Do-28s seems to have been communications flights and to transport small goods to outlaying villages in Laos. Often, the Dornier was called in to go into strips the Apache was originally intended to utilize, but could not. Later, those Do-28s which were based in South Vietnam and at Bangkok were used for similar types of missions. USAID was officially the main contractor to Air America in South Vietnam, all CIA missions in South Vietnam were flown as part of the USAID contracts, and within those contracts, all CIA requirements were handled with priority.
|Task:||STOL Utility Transport.|
|First Flight:||- Do-28 April 29, 1959.
- Do-28A-1 March 20, 1960.
- Do-28B-1 April 1963.
- Do-28D-1 February 23, 1966.
- Do-28D-2T March 1980.
|Wing span:||15,55 m.|
|Wing area:||29 m².|
|Engine:||Two Textron Lycoming IGSO-540-A1E flat six piston engines each rated 380 hp.|
|Propellers:||three blade constant speed Hartzell propellers.|
|Weight:||- empty: 2.328 Kg.|
|Max. Take off weight:||3.842 kg.|
|Max. Speed:||320 Km/h.|
|Max. cruise at low altitude:||286 km/h.|
|Service ceiling:||7.400 m.|
|Max. Range:||1.180 km.|
|Performance:||- take-off run 170 m at max. take-off weight.
- landing run?180 m at max. landing weight.
- max. rate of climb at sea level?360 m/min.
|Dornier Do-28 aircraft built of each type:|
|60 – Do 28, Do 28A and Do 28A-1.|
|60 – Do 28B, Do 28B-1 and Do 28B-2.|
|53 – Do 28D and Do 28D-1.|
|140 – Do 28D-2 re-designated as Do-128-2.|
Dornier Do-28 written-off by accidents:
|..-06-1971||TR-LOS||Ste Air Service.|
|16-01-1975||ET-AEN||Ethiopian Ministry of Public Health|
|05-05-1976||9Q-CDZ||Fa. Danzer Furnierwerke Zaire|
|26-09-1977||PK-VDH||State Aerial Survey Corp.|
|27-01-1983||TJ-XBO||Cameroon Air Force.|
|24-02-1997||NAF-107||Nigeria Air Force.|
|Dornier Do-28 military operators:|
|German Air Force.||-1 Do-28A1
- 127 Do-28D-2
|Air America.||- ?|
|Cameroon Air Force.||- 16 – 18 Do 128-6MPA|
|Croatia Air Force.||- 1 Do-28D-2|
|El Salvador Air Force.||- 5 Do-28D-2|
|Ethiopia Air Force.||- Do-28D-2|
|Greece (Helenic) Air Force.||- 15 Do-28D-2|
|Israeli Air Force.||- 6 Agoor “Crane”|
|Katanga Province (of Congo) rebels.||- 2 Do-28|
|Kenya Air Force.||- 6 Do-28D-2|
|Lesotho Air Force.||- ? Do-28D-2|
|Malawi Air Force.||- 1 Do-28D-2|
|Niger Air Force.||- 1 Do-28D-2|
|Nigeria Air Force.||- 4 Do-28B-1
- 4 Do 28D-1
- 17 Do-28D-2
- 16-18 Do 128-6
|Royal Morocco Air Force.||- 3 Do-28D-2|
|Royal Thai Air Force.||- 3 Do-28D-2|
|Somalia Air Force.||- Do-28D-2|
|Somalia Police.||- 2 Do-28|
|Spanish Air Force.||- 1 U.14 (Do-28A-1)|
|Turkish Air Force/Army.||- 5+ Do 28B-1 and Do 28B-2
- 3+ Do 28D-1
- 15 Do-28D-2
|Yugoslav Air Force||- 2 Do-28D-2|
|Zambia Air Force.||- 6 Do-28D-2|
The NH90 is the largest military helicopter program ever undertaken in Europe. The four launch customers and initial members of the program – Germany, France, Italy and the Netherlands – were rapidly joined by other countries: Portugal, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Greece, the Sultanate of Oman, Australia, New Zealand, Spain and Belgium have also placed firm orders for the NH90. A total of 529 NH90s have been ordered by 14 customer nations. The German Armed Forces have ordered a total of 122 NH90s in the TTH variant, 80 for the airborne units of the Army and 42 for the Air Force. Twelve Army helicopters and two Air Force helicopters have already been delivered. To date, 47 NH90 have been delivered to 7 customer Nations worldwide, cumulating around 6.500 flight hours since delivery.
Developing Nations: Italy, France, Germany, Portugal, Netherlands
Manufacturer/Designer: Agusta, Eurocopter, Eurocopter Germany and Fokker.
Task: Medium transport/utility helicopter
- PT1, F-ZWTH, December 18,1995.
- PT2, F-ZWTI, March 17, 1997.
- PT3, F-ZWTJ, November 27, 1998.
- PT4, 90+98, May 31, 1999.
- PT5, MMX-613, December 22, 1999.
- 98+91, NH90-TTH May 4, 2004.
- Italian Army NH90-TTH September 15,2004.
- Finnish NH90-TTT/SAR September 15, 2004
The NH90 is a twin-engine, medium-lift helicopter equipped with state-of-the-art technology. It was designed from the outset as a multirole weapons system. The two versions – Tactical Transport Helicopter (TTH) and NATO Frigate Helicopter (NFH) – are based on a common modular platform. Equipment packages for specific missions offer maximum deployment flexibility. Great attention has been paid to such features as safety, reliability, ease of maintenance, testability and compatibility with support systems. The rhombus-shaped airframe of the NH90 is made entirely of corrosion-resistant composite materials, and combines optimized streamlining with a low signature. The optimized human-machine interface significantly reduces the pilot’s and crew’s workload. The NH90 is the world’s first production helicopter to be equipped with ultramodern fly-by-wire flight controls, which enhance even further the helicopter’s outstanding handling qualities. The all-weather NH90 can be flown by day or night.
The NH90 has established itself as the standard NATO helicopter of the 21st century. It represents a major step in the efforts to achieve full interoperability between Europe’s armed forces and their allies during the deployment of NATO and UN troops. It will also help increase standardization and streamline costs, training, and logistics.
The NH90 program is managed by the NATO Helicopter Management Agency (NAHEMA), representing the governments of Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Belgium, and by the NHIndustries industrial consortium comprising Eurocopter (62.5%), AgustaWestland (32%) and Fokker (5.5%).
The Design & Development Contract was signed on September 1, 1992. This was followed by the first flight of the first prototype three years later on December 18,1995.
The program ran into a 2 year production delay due to the complicated type approval procedure, and the first NH90s were delivered by late 2006 to the German Army. These were followed by Italian and Finnish helicopters in 2007. Later during 2007, the Italian and French navies started to receive their NFH versions and the first Swedish and Norwegian NH90s were also delivered. On 18 December 2007 the first two MRH 90 aircraft were delivered to the Australian Defence Force.
- Crew: 2 pilots (and possible sensor operator on NFH)
- Capacity: 20 troops/12 stretchers/2 NATO Pallets
- Length: 16.13 m (52 ft 11 in)
- Rotor diameter: 16.30 m (53 ft 6 in)
- Height: 5.23 m (17 ft 2 in)
- Empty weight: 6,400 kg (14,100 lb)
- Useful load: 4,200 kg (9,260 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 10,600 kg (23,370 lb)
- Powerplant: 2× Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322-01/9 turboshaft, 1,662 kW (2,230 shp) each, or:
- Powerplant: 2× General Electric T700-T6E turboshafts, 1,577 kW (2,115 shp) each
- Maximum speed: 300 km/h (162 knots, 186 mph)
- Range: 800 km, 497 mi (TTH); 1,000 km, 621 mi (NFH) ()
- Service ceiling: 6,000 m (20,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 480 m/min (1,574 ft/m)
Australian Army: 40 MRH 90 (TTH),
Royal Australian Navy: 6 MRH 90 (TTH).
Belgium 4 NFH + 6 TTH
Finland 20 TTH (SAR)
French Air Force: 34 TTH.
German Army: 80 TTH
Luftwaffe (Air Force): 42 TTH/CSAR + (12 options)
Hellenic Army: 16 TTH, 4 TTH (Special Operations) + 14 TTH (in option)
Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare): 1 TTH/CSAR (in option)
Italian Army: 60 TTH
Italian Navy (Marina Militare): 46 NFH, 10 TTH
Netherlands : 12 NFH, 8 Marinised TTH
Royal New Zealand Air Force: 8 TTH plus one as a spare
Royal Norwegian Air Force, 6 NFH (ASW), 8 NFH (Coast Guard)
Royal Air Force of Oman: 20 TTH
Portuguese Army: 10 TTH
Spanish Air Force: 28 TTH/CSAR
Spanish Army: 48 TTH
Spanish Navy: 28 NFH/TTH/CSAR/AEW
Saudi Arabia 64 (announced July 2006)
Sweden 13 High Cabin Version, 5 High Cabin Version (ASW)