The British Aircraft Corporation Tactical Strike/Reconnaissance 2 (TSR-2) was an ill-fated Cold War strike aircraft developed by the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) for the Royal Air Force (RAF) in the early 1960s. The TSR-2 project ran from 1957 until its cancellation in the budget speech on 5 April 1965.
Developing nation: United Kingdom.
Manufacturer/designer: British Aircraft Corporation.
Number built: 10 (not all completed, only 1 flew).
Type aircraft: Tactical Strike/Reconnaissance aircraft
First flight: 27 September 1964 XR219.
Last flight: 1965.
Primary user: Royal Aircraft Establishment.
- Crew: 2
- Length: 27.12 m (89 ft ½ in)
- Wingspan: 11.27 m (37 ft 1¾ in)
- Height: 7.24 m (23 ft 9 in)
- Wing area: 65.3 m² (702.9 ft²)
- Empty weight: 24,834 kg (54,750 lb)
- Loaded weight: 36,169 kg (79,573 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 46,357 kg (102,200 lb)
- Powerplant: 2× Bristol Siddeley Olympus BOl.22R (Mk. 320) turbojet
- Dry thrust: 19,610 lb (87.23 kN) each
- Thrust with afterburner: 30,610 lbf (136.7 kN) each
- Maximum speed: Mach 1.1 at sea level (Mach 2.05 at 11 km (36,000ft)
- Range: 1,850 km (1,150 m)
- Service ceiling: 16,459 m (54,000 ft)
- Thrust/weight: 0.77
- Internal weapons bay, 6 m (20 ft ) with (initially) 1 Red Beard 15 kt nuclear weapon or as intended 2 x OR.1177 300kt nuclear weapons (cancelled) or 6 x 1,000 lb (450 kg) HE bombs. Final designed normal load in nuclear role of 4 x WE.177A nuclear weapons, two side-by-side in weapons bay, two on external underwing stores pylons.
- or 4 x 37 rocket packs or nuclear weaponry on inner pylons only.
Maximum of 9,000 kg (20,000 lb) of bombs.
- Autonetics Verdan autopilot modified by Elliot Automation
- Ferranti (terrain following radar and navigation/attack systems)
- EMI (sideways looking radar)
- Marconi (general avionics)
- Cossor (IFF)
- Plessey (Radio)
Originally concieved as a replacement for the RAF’s Canberra bomber, the design process started in 1956 with a protracted series of proposals and counter-proposals between aircraft manufacturers and the now-defunct Ministry of Supply. With the cost of developing modern aircraft soaring, it became necessary for companies to pool their resources in order to compete, and it was the merging of English Electric with Vickers to form the British Aircraft Corporation, or BAC, that secured the tender to develop the TSR2.
The TSR-2 was designed to penetrate a well-defended forward battle area at low altitudes and very high speeds, and then attack high-value targets in the rear with close-in bomb runs and precision drops. The TSR-2 included a number of advanced features that made it the highest performing aircraft in this role. Despite dire warnings from the engine manufacturers the flight was duly made on the 27th of September 1964. Aerodynamically the aircraft was almost entirely trouble-free even though it was impossible to retract the undercarriage!
As time progressed the numourous problems with the TSR2 were slowly ironed out, and from the mass of problems began to emerge an aircraft of quite glittering performance. The undercarriage problem was finally rectified after the 10th test flight, and on flight 14 the aircraft went supersonic for the first and only time, this being achieved with only one engine in afterburn.
After the budget speech on 5 April 1965 the British government decided that the estimated costs of research, development and production of the TSR-2 would be prohibitive and cancelled the project. The maiden flight of the second prototype aircraft, XR220, was due on the day of the announcement, but in the event it never happened, and only the first prototype, XR219, ever took to the air. XR219, was taken to Shoeburyness shooting range and used as a target to test the vulnerability of a modern airframe and systems to gunfire.
- XR220 (X-02) is on display at the RAF Museum Cosford, England.
- XR222 (X-04) is on display at the Imperial War Museum Duxford, England.
- Cockpit section on display at the Brooklands Museum, Weybridge, Surrey
All pictures courtesy of Zijde Aviation Photo and Publishing, Rob Vogelaar
Vicker’s Viscount was the first turboprop airliner to fly a regular airline service, the prototype registered G-AHRF, first flew on 16 July 1948. Vickers by Chief Designer Rex Pierson broke the piston engines monopoly on air transport.
Developing nation: United Kingdom.
Manufacturer/designer: Vickers Armstrongs Aircraft Ltd./Rex Pierson.
Production: 1950 – 1962.
Number built: 459.
Type aircraft: Medium-Range Turbo Airliner.
First flight: 16 July 1948 G-AHRF.
First delivery: 1950.
- Crew: Two pilots + cabin crew
- Capacity: 75 passengers
- Length: 26.11 m (85 ft 8 in)
- Wingspan: 28.56 (93 ft 8 in)
- Height: 8.15 m (26 ft 9 in)
- Wing area: 89 sq m (963 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 18,815 kg (41,479 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 32,786 kg (72,281 lb)
- Powerplant: 4x Rolls-Royce Dart RDa.7/1 Mk 525 turboprop, 2,100 shp (1,566 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 566 km/h (352 mph)
- Range: 2,790 km (1,735 mi)
- Service ceiling: 7,620 m (25,000 ft)
- Wing loading: 368 kg/sq m (75 lb/sq ft)
- 700 – the first production version, 287 built
- 724 – 15 sold
- 745D – 40 sold
- 757 – 35 upgraded 1,600 hp (1,120 kW) Dart 510 engines
- 771D – improved 770D
- 785D -
- 800 – 67 built
- 810 – 84 built
The British Aerospace Hawk started life as the Hawker-Siddeley P1182 which won the competition for a new advanced trainer for the RAF in 1971. The prototype flew in 1974. The British Aerospace Hawk is a small, single engine, two-seat advanced trainer, which entered RAF service in 1976, to replace the Gnat and later the Jet Provost in RAF service.
Since the Hawk is such a responsive, agile and predictable aircraft, students remain with the Hawk throughout their advanced training syllabus, it is also a capable front line fighter carrying war-loads up to 3100 kg. These are carried beneath the fuselage and on four under wing pylons.
Worldwide sales of the British Aerospace Hawk now exceed 900 aircraft to 19 customers. The most significant order came from the US Navy who selected the Hawk as the basis for its advanced jet strike training program. Known as the T-45 Goshawk.
In the winter of 1979/80 the Red Arrows took delivery of the Hawk,? it replaced the Hawker Siddeley Gnats which the Red Arrows had flown since 1965. Aside from its paint scheme the Red Arrows Hawk differs little from the standard T Mk1. Each of the teams aircraft carries a ventral 318 liter tank containing diesel oil and red and blue dye, in separate compartments. On selection these fluids are pumped to three jet pipe nozzles where the hot temperature produces the smoke.
|Developing nation:||United Kingdom.|
|Production line:||Brough, East Yorkshire, UK.|
|Task:||Lead-in fighter trainer.|
|First flight:||August 21, 1974 XX154.|
|First delivery:||November 1976, RAF 4FTS at Valley.|
|BAe Hawk T.1|
|Ejection seat:||Martin Baker Mk.10 zero-zero.|
|Wing Span:||9,39 m.|
|Wing Area:||16,69 m².|
|Length fuselage:||11,17 m.|
|Length fuselage including probe:||11,86 m.|
|Tail plane span:||4,39 m.|
|Wheel track:||4,50 m.|
|Engines:||One Rolls Royce/Turbomeca Adour Mk.151-01 rated 23.13 kN.|
|Weight:||- Empty: 3.647 Kg.
- Internal fuel: 1.704 liters.
- External fuel: 2 x 864 liter drop tanks.
- Max. payload: 3.084 Kg.
|Max. take off weight:||5.700 Kg.|
|Max. speed:||1.038 km/h at 3.355 m.|
|Service ceiling:||15.240 m.|
|Range:||- range 2.428 km without drop tanks.
- ferry range 3.094 km with drop tanks.
- combat radius 556 km with a 2.540 kg war load or 1.038 km with a 1.361 kg war load.
|Performance:||- max. rate of climb at sea level 2.835 m per minute.
- climb to 9.145 m in 6 minutes, 6 seconds.
- take-off run 549 m at max. take-off weight.
- landing run 488 m at normal landing weight.
|Under wing hardpoints:||4.|
|Weapons:||- Aden 30 mm cannon with 120 rounds.
- AIM-9L Sidewinder.
- 9 x 240 kg bombs.
- 9 x 113 kg bombs.
- 5 x 540 kg bombs.
- cluster bombs.
- SNEB rocket pods.
|BAe Hawk operators:|
|Abu Dhabi.||- 1 Hawk T.63
- 15 Hawk T.63A
- 5 Hawk T.63C
|Dubai.||- 9 Hawk T.61|
|Finland.||- 57 Hawk Mk.57|
|Indonesia.||- 20 Hawk T.53|
|Kenya.||- 12 Hawk T.52|
|Kuwait.||- 12 Hawk T.64|
|Saudi Arabia.||- 30 Hawk T.65
- 20 Hawk T.65A
|South-Korea.||- 20 Hawk T.67|
|Switzerland.||- 20 Hawk T.66|
|United Kingdom.||- 176 Hawk T.1
(88 T.1s upgraded with Sidewinder capability to T.1A and 24 to T.1W).
|Zimbabwe.||- 8 Hawk T.60
- 5 Hawk T.60A
|US Navy.||- 83 T-45A Goshawk
- 91 T-45C Goshawk
|601||Hawk T.60||Zimbabwe Air Force.|
|602||Hawk T.60||Zimbabwe Air Force.|
|17-05-1980||XX262||Hawk T.1||Red Arrows/Royal Air Force.|
|17-03-1981||HW-302||Hawk Mk.51||Finnish Air Force.|
|17-06-1981||LL-5307||Hawk T.53||Indonesian Air Force.|
|17-06-1981||LL-5308||Hawk T.53||Indonesian Air Force.|
|17-09-1981||LL-5302||Hawk T.53||Indonesian Air Force.|
|22-10-1981||LL-5304||Hawk T.53||Indonesian Air Force.|
|07-01-1982||XX344||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|28-07-1982||XX305||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|20-10-1982||XX300||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|24-06-1983||XX166||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|29-07-1983||XX229||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|10-08-1983||LL-5303||Hawk T.53||Indonesian Air Force.|
|21-03-1984||XX251||Hawk T.1||Red Arrows/Royal Air Force.|
|31-08-1984||XX257||Hawk T.1||Red Arrows/Royal Air Force.|
|25-10-1984||XX298||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|07-11-1984||XX180||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|30-01-1985||XX279||Hawk T.1A||Royal Air Force.|
|17-04-1985||XX293||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|26-09-1985||XX333||Hawk T.1A||Royal Air Force.|
|26-09-1985||XX340||Hawk T.1A||Royal Air Force.|
|02-03-1986||508||Hawk T.61||Dubai (United Arab Emirates Air Force).|
|04-04-1986||504||Hawk T.61||Dubai (United Arab Emirates Air Force).|
|04-04-1986||505||Hawk T.61||Dubai (United Arab Emirates Air Force).|
|09-05-1986||HW-313||Hawk Mk.51||Finnish Air Force.|
|07-07-1986||XX223||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|03-11-1986||XX297||Hawk T.1A?||Royal Air Force.|
|24-02-1987||1016?||Hawk T.63A||Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates Air Force).|
|16-11-1987||XX241||Hawk T.1||Red Arrows/Royal Air Force.|
|16-11-1987||XX259||Hawk T.1A?||Red Arrows/Royal Air Force.|
|22-01-1988||XX243||Hawk T.1A||Red Arrows/Royal Air Force.|
|13-05-1988||XX197||Hawk T.1A||Royal Air Force.|
|15-04-1989||1003||Hawk T.63||Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates Air Force).|
|14-06-1989||XX182||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|14-06-1989||XX291||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|20-06-1989||LL-5318||Hawk T.53||Indonesian Air Force.|
|19-09-1989||XX192||Hawk T.1A||Royal Air Force.|
|09-05-1990||XX347||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|15-10-1990||U-1256||Hawk T.66||Swiss Air Force.|
|18-12-1991||506||Hawk T.61||Dubai (United Arab Emirates Air Force).|
|30-09-1992||XX334||Hawk T.1A||Royal Air Force.|
|01-07-1993||XX163||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|25-04-1994||507||Hawk T.61||Dubai (United Arab Emirates Air Force).|
|04-11-1994||503||Hawk T.61||Dubai (United Arab Emirates Air Force).|
|21-07-1995||1006||Hawk T.63A||Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates Air Force).|
|10-08-1995||XX288||Hawk T.1W||Royal Air Force.|
|13-02-1996||XX164||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|26-05-1996||XX302||Hawk T.1A||Royal Air Force.|
|08-04-1997||XX343||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|30-04-1998||XX186||Hawk T.1A||Royal Air Force.|
|17-11-1998||XX252||Hawk T.1A||Red Arrows/Royal Air Force.|
|22-11-1999||XX193||Hawk T.1A||Royal Air Force.|
|18-10-2000||XX282||Hawk T.1A||Royal Air Force.|
|14-01-2002||141||Hawk T.64||Kuwait Air Force.|
|05-02-2002||8803||Hawk T.65A||Royal Saudi Air Arms.|
|05-02-2002||8804||Hawk T.65A||Royal Saudi Air Arms.|
|15-02-2002||XX352?||Hawk T.1A||Royal Air Force.|
|28-03-2002||TT-5310||Hawk T.53||Indonesian Air Force.|
|28-03-2002||TT-5311||Hawk T.53||Indonesian Air Force.|
|25-03-2003||HW-305||Hawk Mk.51||Finnish Air Force.|
|23-07-2003||XX183||Hawk T.1||Royal Air Force.|
|15-05-2004||8801||Hawk T.65A||Royal Saudi Air Arms.|
|05-04-2005||151||Hawk T.64||Kuwait Air Force.|
|24-07-2005||8802||Hawk T.65A||Royal Saudi Air Arms.|
|24-07-2005||8809||Hawk T.65A||Royal Saudi Air Arms.|
Zimbabwe Air Force 3 more Hawks are written-off.