The Bombardier CRJ1000 is a regional airliners based on the Bombardier CRJ200.
Developing nation: Canada.
Manufacturer/designer: Bombardier Aerospace.
Production Lines: Montréal-Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, Quebec Canada.
Type aircraft: Regional Airliner.
First flight: 3 September 2008.
Type Certification: 10 November 2010.
First delivery: 14 December 2010, Bombardier began CRJ1000 deliveries to Brit Air and Air Nostrum.
Produced: 2009 – present.
State: in service.
The aircraft development was announced in February 2007 and by June 2009 Bombardier had received firm orders for 64 CRJ1000 and four options. The launch customer was the French airline Brit Air, with 14 aircraft on order, and the Italian airline MyAir, with 15 on order.
The first aircraft was produced in Montreal in July 2009. Bombardier, however, identified a fault in the rudder controls during the flight test. The test programme was therefore postponed to rectify the fault. The programme resumed again in February 2010, and the first two aircraft were delivered to France based airlines First Air Nostrum and Brit Air in December 2010.
By July 2011 Bombardier had a delivery backlog of 36 CRJ1000 aircraft, out of the total 49 orders received for the aircraft.
The aircraft will be built in two versions, a standard and an extended-range (ER) version. Carrying 100 passengers, the CRJ1000 has a range of 2,760km and the CRJ1000ER extended range has a range of 3,130km.
The CRJ1000 regional airliner is being marketed to meet the needs of growing regional airlines for jets of up to 100 seats, with environmentally green performance and with particular focus on low operating costs, greater fuel efficiency and improvements in passenger comfort. In comparison to older aircraft of similar passenger capacity currently in operation, the CRJ1000 provides substantially lower fuel consumption and achieves up to 30% reduced carbon dioxide engine emissions.
The CRJ1000 has the same two-pilot flight deck configuration as the CRJ900. The flight deck is equipped with a Rockwell Collins Pro Line 4 integrated avionics system, with a six-tube electronic flight and information system (EFIS) and engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS).
The Bombardier CRJ700, CRJ705, CRJ900 and the new CRJ1000 airliners are powered by the General Electric CF34-8C5 family of engines. The CRJ1000 is powered by either the GE CF34-8C5A1 or the new derivative engine version, A2.
- Crew: 2 pilots
- Capacity: 88 – 100 passengers
- Payload: 11,975 kg (26,400 lb)
- Length: 39.1 m (128 ft. 5 in)
- Wingspan: 26.2 m (85 ft. 11 in)
- Height: 7.5 m (24 ft. 6 in)
- Wing area: 77.4 m² (833 ft.²)
- Fuselage Maximum Diameter: 2.7 m (8 ft. 10 in)
- Empty weight: 23,179 kg (51,100 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 41,640 kg (91,800 lb.)
- Powerplant: 2x GE CF34-8C5A1 turbofans each 14,510 lb. / 64.5 kN thrust APR
- Maximum speed: 870 km/h (0.82 Mach, 470 kts, 541 mph)
- Cruise speed: 827 km/h (0.78 Mach 447 kts 515 mph)
- Range: 2,843 km (1,535 NM 1,766 SM)
- Service ceiling: 12,497 m (41,000 ft)
- Rockwell Collins Pro Line 4 six-screen EFIS/EICAS suite enhanced with Pro Line 21 Replaceable Units (LRU)
- Dual gyro-compassing attitude heading reference systems (AHRS)
- Traffic alert & collision avoidance system (TCAS) and enhanced ground roximity warning system (EGPWS)
- Rockwell Collins digital weather radar
All pictures courtesy of Zijde Aviation Photo and Publishing, Rob Vogelaar
The Sopwith Triplane was a British single seat fighter aircraft designed and manufactured by the Sopwith Aviation Company during the First World War.
Developing nation: British.
Manufacturer/designer: Sopwith Aviaton Company/Chief engineer Herbert Smith.
Production Lines: Kingston upon Thames
Type aircraft: Triplane fighter.
First flight: 28 May 1916.
First delivery: December 1916.
The Sopwith Triplane had three narrow-chord wings. The combined wing area of the three mainplanes gave the aircraft plenty of lift. Ailerons were fitted to all three wings; the interplane struts were plain but strong and few bracing wires were needed. The fuselage was a typical Sopwith wooden box girder. Tail-plane, elevators, rudder and fin resembled those of the Pup, but later production models had a tail-plane of reduced area.
The first prototype Sopwith Triplane, N.500, went to France in mid-June, 1916 to undergo Service trials with Naval “A” Fighting Squadron at Furnes. The Triplane was an instant success, and no time was lost in testing it in action, for it was sent up on an interception within a quarter of an hour of its arrival at Furnes. It was destined to be flown operationally by naval units only.
The Sopwith Triplane was used in combat by the Royal Naval Air Service. Visibility from the cockpit was outstanding but the “Tripe” was slower and less heavily armed than it’s German opponents. The Germans were impressed with its performance and a captured Triplane inspired the development of the Fokker DR.I. The Triplane was eventually withdrawn from service and replaced with the Sopwith Camel. The “Black Flight,” commanded by Canadian ace Raymond Collishaw, shot down 87 German aircraft in three months while flying the Sopwith Triplane. Downing 33 enemy aircraft, Collishaw scored more victories with this plane than any other ace.
- France - French Navy (17 aircraft)
- Greece - Hellenic Navy (1 aircraft)
- Russian Empire - Imperial Russian Air Force (1 aircraft)
- United Kingdom - Royal Naval Air Service
- No. 1 Naval Squadron
- No. 8 Naval Squadron
- No. 9 Naval Squadron
- No. 10 Naval Squadron
- No. 11 Naval Squadron
- No. 12 Naval Squadron
- “A” Naval Squadron
N5912 (cn 8385M) Only two authentic Sopwith Triplanes remain in existence. N5912 was one of three aircraft built by Oakley & Co. Ltd. and delivered in late 1917. The aircraft saw no combat service and instead served with No.2 School of Aerial Fighting and Gunnery at Marske. After the war the Imperial War Museum displayed the aircraft in a temporary exhibition until 1924. In 1936, the RAF acquired and restored the aircraft, flying it in several RAF Pageants at Hendon, there is presently displayed in the Grahame-White Factory Exhibition Hall.
N5486 was supplied to the Russian Government for evaluation in May 1917. In Russia, the aircraft was fitted with skis and used operationally until captured by the Bolshevists. The aircraft then served in the Red Air Force, probably as a trainer, and was rebuilt many times. Today, N5486 is preserved at the Central Air Force Museum, Monino, Russia.
- Crew: 1
- Length: 5.73 m (18 ft 10 in)
- Wingspan: 8 m (26 ft 6 in)
- Height: 3.2 m (10 ft 6 in)
- Wing area: 21.46 m² (231 ft²)
- Empty weight: 500 kg (1,101 lb)
- Loaded weight: 700 kg (1,541 lb)
- Powerplant: 1 × Clerget 9B rotary engine, 130 hp (97 kW)
- Maximum speed: 187 km/h (117 mph) at 1,830 m (5,000 ft)
- Endurance: 2 hrs 45 min
- Service ceiling: 6,250 m (20,500 ft)
- Wing loading: 29.92 kg/m² (6.13 lb/ft²)
- Time to 1,830 m (6,000 ft): 5 min 50 s
- Time to 5,000 m (16,400 ft): 26 min 30 s
- Guns: 1× .303 in Vickers machine gun
All pictures courtesy of Zijde Aviation Photo and Publishing, Rob Vogelaar and Marcel van Leeuwen.
Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SSJ 100) is a modern Russian, fly-by-wire regional jet in the 75- to 95-seat category. The assembly line for all versions of the Sukhoi Superjet 100 is located at the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO), based in Komsomolsk-on-Amur in the Russian Far East.
Developing nation: Russia.
Manufacturer/designer: Sukhoi Aircraft Company.
Production Lines: Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO), based in Komsomolsk-on-Amur.
Type aircraft: Airliner.
First flight: 19 May 2008.
First delivery: 21 April 2011 with Armavia.
Produced: 2007 – present
State: in service.
The leading-edge technologies, being the core ingredient of the Sukhoi Superjet 100 Project, penetrate its every stage – from design and development to final assembly, delivering a modern, economically efficient and globally marketable aircraft.
SSJ100 is easy and safe to pilot. The cockpit design features a “passive” side stick and “active” engine control levers. The Human Centered Design concept perfectly arranges the control levers and on-board equipment. SSJ100 can be landed by one pilot only. Dark and Quiet Cockpit offers precise, convenient and reliable piloting of Sukhoi Superjet 100.
Optimal piloting in automated mode together with the failure-safe flight control system ensure additional fuel efficiency and improve flight safety. The remote control system (RCS) is based upon three two-channel upper level computers (PFCU – Primary Flight Actuator Control Unit) adding two-channel lower level computers (ACE – Actuator Control Electronics). PFCU’s process command signals coming from the cockpit, autopilot and avionics. Besides, it optimizes piloting performance in all flight modes. The unsurpassed functionality of PFCU results from Sukhoi Design Bureau’s experience in development of FBW systems with automatic limitation of ultimate and operational flight parameters in manual and automatic control modes. Solid reliability of the aircraft systems and pilot induced failure proof functionality increase flight safety. Sukhoi Superjet 100 is sure to become the first regional aircraft, enjoying such advanced control system features. In case of in-flight system failures, the RCS switches to the standby control circuit offering piloting characteristics similar to those of manual flight mode.
Sukhoi Superjet 100 features fully electronic fly-by-wire control system for piloting, landing gear extension and retraction, and a break system to prove its high maintainability and weight perfection.
Sukhoi Superjet 100 failure-safe FBW architecture means no more mechanical redundancy. The horizontal stabilizer is also controlled by fly-by-wire, leading to stabilizer optimal size and reduction of aerodynamic and trim resistance. Sukhoi Superjet 100 is algorithmically protected against tail/runway collision induced by pilot.
The THALES designed avionics open architecture is based on the integrated modular technology. This helped to decrease the number of structure modules by 15% and to facilitate maintenance procedures.
Sukhoi Superjet 100 is equipped with the built-in failure detection system able to find any failure including those at the LRU level of any major aircraft system. Moreover, the basic configuration of avionics offers wider functionality, including triple ultra-short-wave communication system with ACARS function, the second generation T2CAS system designed to prevent collision as well as the IIIA ICAO category approach capabilities.
Each aircraft is powered by the new SaM146 engine developed by PowerJet to meet the highest performance and eco requirements. Snecma Moteurs and NPO Saturn?s distinct experience and perfect synergy produced a hi-tech result by applying the CFM56 & Tech56 technologies when creating an engine distinguished for its excellent performance.
A strong focus was put on engine maintainability. Now the blades can be replaced with engine on the wing. Owing to the new modular design, the engine employs 20% less parts, which significantly streamlines maintenance operations.
The double-bubble fuselage expanded “life space” for each passenger up to 0.885 m3 and increased the height of the cargo compartment up to 1014 mm.
It is obvious that leading-edge technologies applied in design & development demand state-of-the-art technologies in production.
The new technologies introduced at SCAC’s production sites are: automatic riveting and high-speed part machining, information environment, embracing design, production and supply into common environment, airframe jigless assembly with laser positioning, manufacturing of wing panel and wing coupling to the fuselage with no manual adjustment.
The SSJ100 aerodynamic configuration is specifically optimized for high cruise M-speed. That is why speed increase does not lead to a dramatic increase in fuel consumption. When compared with its rivals bound to fly at M 0.75 – 0.76 to stay in economic mode, SSJ100 has higher cruise speed.
SSJ100’s enhanced take-off and landing performance along with all-weather operation, wide range and passenger payload capabilities make SSJ100 an efficient route developer. This offers airlines freedom in route and schedule planning.
Super economics results from crew training cost reduction when operating different types of the SSJ100 aircraft as a single fleet. Furthermore, this advantage stems from easy-to-reach maintenance zones, 20% reduction in the number of modular engine components (SaM146) and 10% cutback in fuel consumption.
Sukhoi Superjet 100 offers 10% decrease of operation costs due to its weight perfection, economic fuel consumption and lower maintenance costs.
Energy saving all-LED passenger cabin lightning helps airlines decrease maintenance costs on lighting.
The dimensions of the cargo compartment completely meet the challenging requirements of trade unions regarding the work of ground personnel.
While Sukhoi Superjet 100 belongs to the regional class, its long-range (LR) version can effectively operate on a number of mainline routes.
Super Fuel Efficiency:
Fuel efficiency is secured by the third generation supercritical airfoil wing and excellent local aerodynamics. All this combined with perfectly balanced aircraft control laws in autopilot mode add to fuel consumption savings. Weight perfection and the SaM146 engine, tailored for this aircraft family, reduce fuel consumption per seat by 10% compared to its rivals. Super Green:
Noise and emissions levels of SSJ100 meet the strictest ecological demands and surpass the highest existing and future ICAO requirements.
|SSJ 100–75||SSJ 100-75LR||SSJ 100–95||SSJ 100-95LR|
|Seating capacity||83 (1-class, dense) 78 (1-class, standard) 68 (2-class, standard)||103 (1-class, dense) 98 (1-class, standard) 86 (2-class, standard)|
|Seat pitch||30 in (1-class, dense), 32 in (1-class, standard) 36 & 32 in (2-class, standard)||31 in (1-class, dense), 32 in (1-class, standard) 36 & 32 in (2-class, standard)|
|Length||26.44 m (86 ft 9 in)||29.94 m (98 ft 3 in)|
|Wingspan||27.80 m (91 ft 2 in)|
|Height||10.28 m (33 ft 9 in)|
|Fuselage max diameter||3.35 m (11 ft 0 in)|
|Cabin width||3.236 m (127.4 in)|
|Cabin height||2.12 m (6 ft 11 in)|
|Aisle width||51 cm (20 in)|
|Seat width||46.5 cm (18.3 in)|
|Volume bins per passenger||0.07 m3 (2.5 cu ft)|
|Maximum take-off weight (MTOW)||38,820 kg (85,600 lb)||42,280 kg (93,200 lb)||45,880 kg (101,100 lb)||49,450 kg (109,000 lb)|
|Empty weight (OEW)||-||-||25,100 kg (55,000 lb)||-|
|DOW||-||-||26,600 kg (59,000 lb)||-|
|Maximum landing weight||35,000 kg (77,000 lb)||41,000 kg (90,000 lb)|
|Maximum payload||9,130 kg (20,100 lb)||12,245 kg (27,000 lb)|
|Maximum fuel capacity||13,135 L (10,600 kg or 23,370 lb)||13,135 L (10,600 kg or 23,370 lb)|
|Cargo capacity||15.01 m3 (530 cu ft)||21.97 m3 (776 cu ft)|
|Takeoff run at MTOW||1,515 m (4,970 ft)||1,731 m (5,679 ft)||2,052 m (6,732 ft)|
|Maximum flight altitude||12,500 m (41,000 ft)|
|Cruising speed||Mach 0.78 (828 km/h/511 mph / 448knots at 11,000 m/36,000 ft)|
|Maximum cruise speed||Mach 0.81 (870 km/h/ 541 mph / 469knots at 11,000 m/36,000 ft)|
|Range (full passenger payload)||2,900 km (1,800 mi)||4,550 km (2,830 mi)||3,048 km (1,894 mi)||4,578 km (2,845 mi)|
|Engine (x 2)||PowerJet SaM146|
|Takeoff thrust (x 2)||13,500 lbf (60 kN)||15,400 lbf (69 kN)|
|APR thrust (x 2)||15,400 lbf (69 kN)||17,500 lbf (78 kN)|
|Fan tip diameter||1.22 m (48 in)|
|Engine length||2.07 m (81 in)|
Sources: Sukhoi Civil Aircraft Company.
Russian Sukhoi plane missing on test flight in Indonesia 9 May 2012
A Russian Sukhoi passenger plane (97004) with 46 people on board, including businessmen and Russian envoys, has gone missing during a demonstration flight over West Java in Indonesia, officials said.
Indonesia’s search and rescue agency said radio contact was lost with the plane after it descended to 6,000 feet. The Indonesia military said the plane “fell” from the sky.
“The plane was doing the first flight around midday and returned to the airport, but when it took off the second time, it lost contact around Bogor,” said Bambang Ervan, the transport ministry spokesman.
All pictures courtesy of Zijde Aviation Photo and Publishing, Rob Vogelaar and Marcel van Leeuwen.