Airbus A320

Prototype of the Airbus A320 family F-WWAI at Paris-Le Bourget.
Prototype of the Airbus A320 family F-WWAI at Paris-Le Bourget.
The Airbus A320 is the basis for a whole family of airliners, now including the A318, A319 and A321.The A320 was the first narrow body airliner from Airbus. It was designed with a maximum of new technology incorporated, like

  • Fly-by wire control system, first in subsonic airliners.
  • Extensive use of composite materials.
  • Two-crew cockpit with side stick controllers.

The Airbus A320 program was launched on March 23, 1984. Four aircraft were involved in the flight test program. The first made its maiden flight on February 22, 1987 from Toulouse. Certification of the Airbus A320-100 was achieved on  February, 26 1988. Deliveries commenced on March 26, 1988, to Air France. British Airways followed on March 31st .
The A320-200, which is now the standard version, was certified on November 8, 1988. The US FAA approved both variants on December 15, 1988. The V2500 power plant option was first flight tested on July 28, 1988, and this engine was approved on the A320 on April 20, 1989. Deliveries began in May 1989 to Adria Airways. The 500th A320 was handed over on January 20,  1995, to United Airlines.

The stretched A321 and shortened A319 and A318 are described separately. All four share a common pilot type rating.

Developing nation: Europe
Manufacturer/designer: EADS – Airbus Industries.
Production line: Toulouse – Blagnac, France.
Type aircraft: Short to medium range airliner.
First flight: February 22, 1987. F-WWAI.
First delivery: March 26, 1988, to Air France.
  Airbus A320-200
Cockpit crew: Two pilots and a flight engineer.
Passengers single class: 164.
Passengers two class: – 12 business class.
– 138 economy class.
Cabin length: 27,50 m.
Cabin diameter: 3,70 m.
Cabin height: 2,22 m.
Cargo volume: – Under floor 37,42 m³.
LD3 Containers in belly: 7.
Wing span: 34,09 m.
Wing area: 122,6 m².
Wing sweep: 25 degrees.
Fuselage length: 37,57 m.
Fuselage diameter: 3,96 m.
Height: 11,76 m.
Wheelbase: 12,65 m.
Track: 7,59 m.
Engines: – Two CFM International CFM56-5A1 rated 111.2 kN.
-Two CFM International CFM56-5A3 rated 117.88 kN.- Two CFM International CFM56-5B4 rated 117.9 kN.-Two International Aero Engines V2500-A1 rated 111.2 kN.- Two International Aero Engines V2527-A5 rated 117.9 kN.
Weight: – Empty: 42.200 Kg.
– max. zero-fuel weight: 62.605 Kg.
– Fuel: 18.806 Kg.
– Max. payload: 19.093 Kg.
Max. take off weight: 77.020 Kg.
Max. landing weight: 65.999 Kg.
Cruise speed: 833 km/h.
Max. speed: 926 km/h.
Max. ceiling: 11.887 m.
Max. range: 6.797 km.

Airbus A320 production:

Airbus A320 built 1326, active 1295, on order 73, stored 20 and written off 11 at October 2004 .

Airbus A320 built of each type:
21 – A320-111 CFM56-5A1 Engines.
310 – A320-211 CFM56-5A1 Engines.
65 – A320-212 CFM56-5A3 Engines.
371 – A320-214 CFM56-5B4 Engines.
138 – A320-231 IAE V2500-A1 Engines.
439 – A320-232 IAE V2527-A5 Engines.
55 – A320- 233 IAE V2527-A5 Engines.

11 Aircraft written-off by accidents:

  • June 26, 1988.    F-GFKC    Airbus A320-111    Air France    an Airshow at Mulhouse-Habsheim, France the A320 flew at low speed, gear down at 100 feet and reducing to reach maximum possible angle of attack. The plane sank slowly into the forest and a fire broke out.    3 fatalities / 136 on board.
  • February 19, 1990.    VT-EPN    Airbus A320-230    Indian Airlines    On final approach of Bangalore, India the aircraft descended well below the normal approach profile and kept descending until it struck the boundaries of the Karnataka Golf Club 800 meters short of the runway.    92 fatalities / 146 on board.
  • January 20, 1992.    F-GGED     Airbus A320-111    Air Inter   The Vosges mountains near Strasbourg, France were in clouds above 600 m, with tops of the layer reaching about 1.950 m. The aircraft struck trees and impacted a 825 m high ridge at the 800 m level near Mt. Saint-Odile.    87 fatalities / 96 on board.
  • September 14, 1993.    D-AIPN    Airbus A320-211    Lufthansa    crashed at runway 11  of Warsaw-Okecie, Poland,  by windshear on the approach. The Airbus’ right gear touched down 770m from the runway 11 threshold. The left gear touched down 9 seconds later, 1525m from the threshold. A wheel brakes and a fire started in the left wing area and penetrated into the passenger cabin.    2 fatalities / 70 on board.
  • March 10, 1997.    A40-EM    Airbus A320-212    Gulf Air    At take-off from Abu Dhabi International Airport, United Arab Emirates, control difficulties at V1 forced the crew to abort the take-off. The Airbus overrun the runway. The nose gear collapsed.    0 fatalities / 115 on board.
  • March 22, 1998.    RP-C3222    Airbus A320-214    Philippine Air Lines    during landing at Bacolod Airport, Philippines this A320 went through a low concrete perimeter fence, crossed a small river and hit a row of houses before stopping near a highway at.    0 fatalities / 127 on board.
  • April 11, 2000.    F-OHMD    Airbus A320-231    Mexicana    at Minatitlan Airport, Mexico, extreme fire damage while being refueled. It appears the refueling truck drove off still connected to the aircraft.    0 fatalities / 0 on board.
  • August 23, 2000.    A40-EK    Airbus A320-212    Gulf Air     after a go-around at the approach of Bahrain International Airport, Bahrain, the Airbus impacted the sea at a 6.5-degreee nose down angle, about 1nm north of the airport.    143 fatalities / 143 on board.
  • February 7, 2001.    EC-HKJ    Airbus A320-214    Iberia    after landing the nose gear collapsed and the aircraft skidded about 1000m down the runway before coming to a stop at Bilbao Airport, Spain.    0 fatalities / 143 on board.
  • July 24, 2001.    4R-ABA    Airbus A320-231    SriLankan Airlines    Tamil Tiger rebels launched a major pre-dawn suicide attack on Colombo-Bandaranayake International Airport, Sri Lanka. This A320 was written-off.    0 fatalities / 0 on board.
  • August 28, 2002.    N635AW    Airbus A320-231    America West    during landing at Phoenix-Sky Harbor International Airport, AZ, USA, the A320 crossed the apron east of intersection B8, and experienced the collapse and partial separation of its nose gear strut assembly upon traversing the dirt infield area south of the runway.    0 fatalities / 159 on board.

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